Anatoly Rybalko was born in Leningrad in 1974. Graduated from the St Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov Music College of the St Petersburg Conservatoire, having specialised in choral conducting (class of Yelizaveta Kudryavtseva) and opera and symphony conducting (class of Ravil Martynov). Prize-winner at the I All-Russian Choral Conducting Competition (Salavat, 1995).
Since 1996 he has taught at the choral conducting faculty of St Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov Music College. Since 2002 he has been a conductor at the Zazerkalye theatre where has worked on opera productions Gianni Schicchi, Der Schauspieldirektor, From St Petersburg to Myrhorod and La gazzetta, ossia Il matrimonio per concorso.
Works with the St Petersburg Philharmonic Academic Symphony Orchestra (Honoured Ensemble of Russia), the Academic Symphony Orchestra of the St Petersburg Philharmonic, the St Petersburg State Academic Symphony Orchestra, the State Hermitage Orchestra and the Symphony Orchestra of the State Academic Cappella. Since 2006 he has appeared in subscription series concerts at the Great Hall of the St Petersburg Philharmonic.
From 2007–2008 he worked at the Opera and Ballet Theatre of the St Petersburg State Conservatoire. Under his direction, the theatre has produced two premiere productions – a revival of the ballet Giselle and a premiere of the ballet An Evening of Choreographic Miniatures.
In 2008 he became a guest conductor of the Mikhailovsky Theatre. He has staged a production of the ballet Le Corsaire and appeared as an assistant conductor on productions of Romeo and Juliet, I pagliacci, Der Fliegende Holländer and Eugene Onegin. He has twice taken part in tours by the Mikhailovsky Theatre to cities throughout Japan. In 2009 he recorded the soundtrack for the film The Last Station (music by Sergei Yevtushenko).
In 2011 he took up the post of conductor of the State Symphony Orchestra of St Petersburg and began to teach at the faculty of opera and symphony conducting at the St Petersburg Conservatoire.
From the 2013–2014 season he has been Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of the Symphony Orchestra of the Karelian State Philharmonic.
In he 2016 was awarded the title Person of the year of the Republic of Karelia. In 2017 he worked as production conductor in a production of the ballet Swan Lake at the Musical Theatre of the Republic of Karelia